Important Foreword: This next review may seem out-of-sorts with what normally appears on this blog but there is good reason for this change in material direction. Firstly, the future of The Cult Move Review will not be self reliant or restricted to [just] the specifics of horror orientated reviews, though it will undoubtedly remain the main source material and continued area of topic. So for future reference do not be surprised to see other subject orientations appear on this site, for we have plans to expand beyond what you’ve come to expect of us! Secondly, this break from convention will also highlight the fact that we have thoughts and opinions regarding other forms of film ideology outside our natural slant toward the glories of horror cinema which I imagine will surprise most of you regular to the site. Thirdly, Though I may seem critical of John Simon Ritchie throughout this review, I am doing this specifically to play Devils Advocate only, though I will add that I loved certain aspects regarding the future pop culture appeal of Sid Vicious, as a child being brought up in the punk rock era, I still remained a staunch fan of John Lydon aka Johnny Rotten as the face of the Sex Pistols, so for me personally Sid then, as now was never my personal focus point regarding the band has he became with many of my friends at that time during and more so after his death in 1979. Personally, he was merely one interesting aspect of what was otherwise a wider and fascinating sound and visual influence upon a child growing up in a musical landscape of great change and taste. We should also never forget that other punk bands existed and played an equally important role in the history of the punk rock movement, its culture and the diverse way in which punk remained largely independent from mainstream music. The Sex Pistols, in particular Sid Vicious as the focus of attention became more an ‘In Memoriam’ aspect and representation of the culture in its look and imagery rather than a true representative of punks diverse roots both during and after its extraordinary and influential heyday. My opinion of Sid has remained the same and if anything over the years I have clearly become fully aware of his importance as a focal point for the punk rock movement, however that does not mean I had to revert to type and like others my age and slightly older I was never going to be conned by mere marketing of product placement imagery, emblazoned upon it; punks ultimate tragic story… fuck that!
I chose in honour of a punk orientated reminisce to review director Alex Cox’s wonderful stand-out, no holds barred 1986 biopic film Sid & Nancy, based on two of the most unlikely but important iconic punk figures of the latter era of the 20th century – 1970’s music scene. It was a… ‘no brainer’ really! There are ample reasons for appreciating this fine piece of cinematic glory on many structured levels beside what the films obvious title infers in its biographical context. This film is not just a feature based on two extremely damaged characters, (Nancy Spungen in particular) but what this little gem offers us in the first part of Alex Cox’s exceptional direction is a fantastic recapturing atmosphere of a very specific, important and retrospective moment of historical musical provenance and how and what the punk scene ultimately came to epitomise – in particular on the UK side of the Atlantic for both the right reasoning but sadly and more oftly being significantly noted for the wrong reasons, particularly in the case of the band (formed in 1975) – The Sex Pistols, which again in hindsight seemed inevitable. Those interested in the punk phenomenon who were either not yet born; too young to understand its significance, or simply cared little at the time (after the event) for what many would in later years have to acknowledge and appreciate (like it or not) for being part of a very important cultural and music influenced uprising. Sadly this moment also created some unscrupulous foes; those who wanted to gain in financial terms and in this particular case: i.e. Malcolm McLaren – Pistols manager. This was a man who often used aggressive manipulation methods as a significant marketing ploy and for the use of nurturing self publicising exercises that deliberately courted controversial media coverage and also included a period of such turbulent occasions in order to push forward his own money-making manifesto. The fact remained that numerous record labels still seemed undeterred by the growing outrage surrounding The Sex Pistols and began to show their own interest by throwing silly sums of money at the bands management (McLaren) in order to entice them to sign for their label(s). The glaring example being EMI and A&M. Cox in his visual early reminisce of this period deals with two major points of memorable significance which included the now famous live early evening Thames television broadcast of the Today Programme, a publicity event that became better known (after the event) by the press in particular as, ‘“The Filth and the Fury” incident in which we saw Pistols lead guitarist Steve Jones use abusive language in a pre-watershed verbal tirade during Bill Grundy’s (condescending and provocative) interview of the band and their entourage that included amongst its brethren one Siouxsie Sioux, she of the Banshees.
Then there was the very famous barge on the Thames incident during the 1977 Silver Jubilee celebrations of Queen Elizabeth II, 7th June . This alternative celebration ended in the high profile arrest of guests, band members, and Pistols manager Malcolm McLaren by the London constabulary, all incidents well documented here by Cox who does well to segregate these noted events into well proportioned retelling segments of the tale that made the bands story so unique and excitable for the time.
What makes the direction of Cox so plush and vibrant is how he deals with the band issues as well as using important juxtapositions to integrate the main focal point before eventually concentrating in greater detail on Vicious and Spungen and their descent into eventual oblivion. Before the film moves into drug addiction and violence, Alex Cox starts at the beginning by highlighting the events that started it all and early on provides answers to why The Sex Pistols became public enemy number one and gained the punk rock movement its often negative stereotypical notoriety.
The opening scene of the movie begins with the introduction of the New York Police Dept hurrying around a drab and filthy, blood soaked room situated in New York’s famous Chelsea Hotel. A homicide detective grabs a chair and places it down in front of a pale and silent figure before seating himself in front of a man who sits catatonic upon the edge of the bed opposite. As the detective begins to ask questions of the mute, black spiky haired male, two members of the county coroners office sweep past the gathered police officers in order to take away the body of a dead female whom lays upon the bathroom floor adjacent. What we have here is the tragic after effect of a drug fuelled event that has left Nancy Spungen – Chloe Webb dead from a single knife wound and Sid Vicious – Gary Oldman now under suspicion of her murder. The date is 12th October, 1978.
In flashback we are transferred back to London, 1977. The first half of this film subsequently deals with the already active and most notorious punk band and its rise to fame and infamy. We first witness the high jinx antics of two close friends and Sex Pistols band members, Sid Vicious and Pistols frontman John Joseph Lydon aka Johnny Rotten – a brilliant high standard portrayal by Andrew Schofield which throughout this biopic process often shows a complex and at times extremely humourous, intellectual, tongue in cheek side to Rotten that many people, critics mainly, chose to often ignore.
Schofield’s amazing performance should at no time be underestimated and stands on equal terms amongst many of the other high calibre performances throughout the films duration. This is also the moment when both characters John and Sid are initially introduced via their dominatrix friend Linda – Anne Lambton to her American friend, one Nancy Spungen! The film subsequently goes on to deal with the band and its other individual members including, Paul Cook – Perry Benson and Steve Jones – Tony London.
We are also introduced to the bands manager, Malcolm McLaren – David Hayman and the frequent entourage that often accompanied the Pistols road-show, this also includes the more frequent and ever increasing presence of one Nancy Laura Spungen into the fold as would-be girlfriend of one John Simon Ritchie aka Sid Vicious. In this part of the film Alex Cox wonderfully recreates the chaotic backdrop for establishing many of the important protagonist. From the madness of ongoing events such as the band attempts to integrate Sid Vicious in a almost impossible task of replacing the bands original bassist and writer, Glenn Matlock and they trying to get Sid to learn some of the basic bass guitar riffs at a time when the Pistols are in the midst of recording their powerful début classic album, “Never Mind the Bollocks”. Cox manages to deal admirably with using London as the gathering and social backdrop for the bands rise to fame and coincides with the beginning of Sid’s heavier introduction and appetite for the harder drugs, including heroin; its use associated with Nancy’s already burgeoning heroin abuse, which soon spirals into a companionship based on love and drug addiction. During the formation of all this intricate process of main storyline Cox’s direction is at times quite visually encompassing as he continually uses the film to highlight and deal with the cultural movement and those at the forefront of this chaotic UK musical awakening which we came to associate with this particular group of misfits with regard to The Sex Pistols as the band in question. Cox quickly identifies and aims his biographical tone toward the increasing corrosion between band members while also pointing out that despite Spungen’s vital hold on Vicious which indeed did become in large part a negative presence within the ranks of the band, at no time does Cox blame her solely for the sudden fracture within the Pistols as many did (at that time); many still wishing to do so even to this day. What Cox clearly identifies, ‘thank goodness’ was how manipulative and deceitful Malcolm McLaren’s part played in plotting specific and calculated events as the ‘Agent Provocateur’ – especially when it came in the form of the inevitable breakdown of the band as a live entity and furthermore how he did little other than constantly antagonise certain delicate elements within the band ranks to splinter into infighting individual factions; he often, deliberately it seemed added much fuel to the fire of many of the negative situations that started to form much of the bands private and public persona including the brash public outbursts that were created as a result of this highly charged vacuum of antagonism which regularly flared up both within the confines of band meetings and certain public outbursts respectively; matters that eventually came to a head and well documented by this time. McLaren most certainly began initialising this unrest to further his own propaganda campaign under the assumption that he could deliberately hope, (gamble?) upon an ill fated American tour during the commencement of 1978. Again McLaren in mindset assumed that negative publicity would become a positive that would sell the disenfranchised youth of America a punk ethos of stern musical antagonism and baited confrontation.
McLaren hoped there would be a repeat of what had previously happened in the UK, in which such social graces or lack of; would lead to publicity you could not buy and with this in mind – the probable record sales that would amass as a result. The deliberate booking of certain venues during this tour and the social difference of many audience members would become a provocative catalyst for every conceivable aggressive opposition by both the band toward the American public turning up to their gigs, in particular what would transpire in the deep South where audience members consisted largely of what American’s themselves called “Rednecks”. McLaren’s plan was that he wanted to enthuse this cultural indifference which would often guarantee physical violence erupting – the result often being band verses audience physical showdowns, particularly with the potential incendiary temperament of Sid Vicious.
McLaren had undoubtedly known this would transpire? What he did not expect however was that on the final date of the Pistols US tour, a moment of clarity for frontman Johnny Rotten would mark this day as the last gig the band would play together as a live unit. The date was 14th January, 1978. The venue was the Winterland Ballroom in San Francisco. After the band played their one and only song “No Fun” – a Iggy & The Stooges cover, Johnny Rotten announced openly to the audience, “ Ever get the feeling you’ve been cheated?… Good night” he then exited stage left and never returned. It was also suggested that McLaren had actually sacked John Lydon from the band previous to this gig?
The band did reunite temporarily in 1996 for the aptly titled “Filthy Lucre Tour”. The line-up also included the original Pistols bass player Glenn Matlock who was originally sacked from the band and replaced by Sid Vicious. In 2007 the Pistols again reformed to celebrate the 30th Anniversary of their album ‘Never Mind the Bollocks’.They played Brixton Academy over several continued nights. This event was entitled ‘There’ll Always Be An England’, again directed by Julien Temple.
The band by this time had wrongly become a sideshow for Johnny Rotten’s ambitions of freedom and independence and his now constant in-fighting with all members of the band, including his close friend Sid exclusively. Then there was Sid Vicious and Nancy Spungen whom now believed that Sid’s “Punk rock” charisma? and his/their own self obsessed visions of grandeur, (influenced at this time indirectly by McLaren) of the ‘Vicious’ potential trademark would unwittingly or otherwise soon become the focus of all the music worlds attention. The couple would in essence become the unlikely holders of the public limelight and subsequently became the epitome – the defining imagery of what was left behind of punks most famous but now collapsing counter culture at that time and its (then) increasing last stand.
As the films director ends the first part of these whirlwind events, we should momentarily step aside from Cox’s film briefly – we do this in order to specifically remind the uninitiated of what The Sex Pistols ultimately left behind as a brief though poignant legacy, which was a world that sought to step forward kicking and screaming; and now in decades of visionary hindsight there is no doubting that this band shook things up for an apathetic music industry that was very boring and somewhat too comfy and set in its ways, (definitely!) Sadly for the Pistols their “live” physical disbandment in the US came at precisely the time it seemed they had accomplished their mission to smash down many of the controlling music establishment barriers. Sadly their splintering demise left only memories of a band constantly plagued by silly infighting rather than offering an opportunity of what could have been? What was a far greater travesty however was what rose from the remaining ashes, which was a lone drug fuelled punk rocker left at the mercy of unscrupulous record producers. Two remaining band members Steve Jones and Paul Cook were now left with the product name of a band that had lost its lead singer and a bass player that had become nothing other than trouble. Sid had by this stage become a drug addicted jester who had sadly gained an over inflated idea of his own possible worth as the bands star asset. The irony here being highlighted by Cox is that Sid’s real star quality potential and stupefied charisma should anyone have really cared; could have been a distinct possibility but alas as history went on to prove – Sid Vicious became more of a caricature of what people perceived of him as a figurehead of a punk representation rather than a true star in the making? (Also see: Julien Temple’s, “The Great Rock ‘n’ Roll Swindle” (1980)).
The Sex Pistols had produced a seminal album with “Never Mind The Bollocks” (1977) but sadly by the end of this ride, all the worlds observations simply concentrated on their character infamy rather than looking at the albums unique output by a band trying to be considered serious musicians and not the circus act and self deprecates they sadly became, a music industry equivilant of the Patsy Syndrome? To anyone who thinks The Sex Pistols were a freak show and nothing other have obviously never heard their debut album and further – may I suggest you check out N.M.T.B’s and then you may have more understanding of why the McLaren inspired side show hid away truly inspiring musical genius.
Returning to the second part of this film not only immerses us in greater social observations but more uniquely Alex Cox categorically refuses to simply deal with the rise and fall elements of idolatry as was the case in point regarding Sid Vicious and the band that spawned one of the original… “fuck You” attitudes to audiences worldwide, news headlines, social confrontation, derision and eventual opportunism. Also add to this potential melting pot what had originally been seen as a tribal togetherness that unfortunately splintered thanks to the rearing ugly head of individual egotistical disparity and the manipulating of such an incendiary construct by the dodgy Malcolm McLaren in particular. One would think that these events alone would make for a great storyline to end what would be an undoubted entertaining movie tale would it not! However this director brings more to the table and in doing so begins to expand on not just the blatantly obvious aspects of this well documented and famed dynamic of The Sex Pistols story.
As we leave behind the legendary Pistols as was; we now turn more specifically to the eponymous Sid and Nancy and more so what made our two main anti social, at times non-unique and unpleasant misfits initially so unremarkable yet fascinating. The dramatic parallel downward spiral that comes along the side of expectant fame and potential for great fortune in this case is instead replaced with the seeds of an inevitable downfall. Cox uses Oldman and Webb’s substantially “stunning” performances as a hard hitting metaphorical epitaph of the self deprecating despair we come to bear witness to. This great self induced misfortune and the inherent taste for self destruction is well enhanced by Cox’s visual direction, he indulging us heavily of its major downsides and self destructive scale. Sadly in the case of both Sid Vicious and Nancy Spungen we see the excesses of extreme drug addiction slowly but surely “destroy” (ironically a slogan used in punk merchandising!) two very troubled and lost souls. Before we are made to feel uncomfortable by their often childish behaviour, self abusive, self indulgent actions and their unambiguous attitude which come as a consequence of a false drug induced economy in which Sid and Nancy must now believe is their idea of reality which becomes clearly defined as we start to note that those that surround them become largely apathetic by their own lack of moral support as family members, friends, associates seemingly allow these two uncontrollable sociopaths to behave with often childish impunity.
Those who have archived memories of this real pop culture soap opera are temporarily offered a sudden false dawn which at the time hinted at possible good fortune as the relationship shows brief signs of hope as both Sid and Nancy begin to make plans for their future at a time when Sid begins his brief solo career while still under the Pistols banner – Nancy still shadows along in loving obsessive tow. What we additionally note in some quarters are those in the business whom parasitically sought to gain quick capital on the Pistols almost complete breakup and Sid’s obvious solo potential. The dream however is very short lived. Alex Cox sense of detail regarding the last few months of this real tale of woe in which he concentrates firstly on Sid and Nancy’s time in Paris where Sid shoots (Pre – MTV) his famous Olympia Ballroom version of “My Way” and the accompanying film footage that was used for The Sex Pistols up and coming Julien Temple directed movie, “The Great Rock ‘n’ Roll Swindle” (1980).
It is early April 1978. This reenactment of this moment is quite an amazing set piece by Cox and he takes this famed reconstruction as the precise moment that came to define and almost immortalise Sid Vicious at his all to brief musical pinnacle – as we see Gary Oldman’s reinterpretation of this famously documented musical archive. This is still without any doubt, one of Oldman’s finest acting moments. What many people are still totally unaware of regarding the reality of this moment was the fact that Sid’s improvisation of the original lyrics to his version of this world renowned tune was luck rather than choice? While recording the song for vinyl release the process became a painstaking virtual stop-start word for word production. Sid’s forgetfulness and increasing paranoia had made him very ill by this point and though the end result of his version of “My Way” is a very important moment in musical history, a moment that conjures-up for many of a certain age and vintage a defining song that summed up everything representative of its time, be that by accident or great visionary construct, this captured event had also inadvertently (I am afraid), tolled a final bell to the world that despite the chaos that surrounded the Pistols and its individual members, it was this particular Sid Vicious moment that really did come to epitomise the beginning of the end for punk as the sole light bearer for independence and difference. This moment was the shedding of old skin and the dawn of the Newwave movement, much of which was formed initially by punk’s roots which serendipitously spread outward into other musical fusions. Sid Vicious through his own devises would quickly embody punks yesterday and though his cover of a couple of Eddie Cochran classics, along with Sinatra/Anka’s, “My Way” became successful in their own right, the sad fact was that Vicious and his claim to fame would peak mainly in latter years and become more a posthumous event that hid away the original oncoming signposted downfall. The subsequent release of Julien Temples, “The Great Rock ‘n’ Roll Swindle” clearly shows this captured time frame which again in hindsight, left an at times, humourous though mainly sad and tragic Sid Vicious legacy.
I strongly recommend that if you watch Alex Cox’s Sid and Nancy you also give “Swindle” a viewing as a companion Punk double bill: This ultimately completes the Pistols story with a combined cornucopia of visuals of a documented, illustrated life of a madcap band and its individual parts.
We now head toward the inevitable epilogue of Sid and Nancy and like the Titanic we all know how this story is going to end. The last 50 minutes of Cox’s punk biopic is an intense and grim ride about the couples last few months together living in New York City, specifically their time cohabiting in the famous Manhattan based, Chelsea Hotel. This became Sid and Nancy’s home base. This location allowed Sid to have a regular though inconsistent New York based live performance platform which included a put-together for purpose band. These shows became more a modern day curio – freak show in which people often attended simply to catch a glimpse of the infamous punk rocker slowly but surely fall metaphorically upon his sword, has became the case in point. As the famous punk couple became an almost daily localised public event, many New Yorkers soon became largely immunised by their presence and it quickly became clear that the couples dependence on heroin became foremost to their existence and Cox concentrates on the quickening speed of the roller coaster ride that remains the movies pivotal acknowledgement of the fall of Sid and Nancy. Chloe Webb as Nancy and Gary Oldman as Sid are visually mesmerising, both actors making this film an extremely powerful and intense cinematic tour-de-force achievement. The earthy humourous melodrama of the first half of this quite brilliant filmic experience is quickly replaced by the obvious, Elephant in the room, of the second half, quite literally?
The interaction between Oldman and Webb is genuinely spellbinding as it is disturbing in equal measure, which is all the more palpable and encapsulating considering the subject matter on show; but what is equally as absorbing is how Oldman and Webb genuinely manage to convey the wreckage of their characters as they walk into the arms of a real hell created by apathy and an increasing violent combatant relationship that has no moral compass left to salvage. Whatever is left of their fading personality becomes haggled, disorientated and extremely dangerous toward the end of the relationship. (The fire in their room scene is quite unbelievable). Alex Cox deals with the disintegration of two people in a way very few directors have been able to convey regarding substance abuse and its dreadful aftermath.
Never since Uli Edel’s, wonderful and potent, Christiane F (1981) has a film disturbingly entertained and engrossed as a form of hard edged and brutal entertainment as Alex Cox manages with his Sid and Nancy. Every sinew, character nuisance in portrayal are given great life, depth and a full unpleasant bloom that never at any point tries to hide away from the hidden reality of the “Sex, Drugs & Rock ‘n’ Roll” urban legend that often accompanied such a crazy lifestyle. Furthermore Sid and Nancy is a unique biographical experience that refuses to titillate at any point but is instead merciless in its powerful visual conveyance. I am sorry but it is simply that outstanding an achievement. There is no saccharin coating, nor false dawn awarded and at no point does it seek to assimilate that all-to-famous misnomer that only good things come of drug addiction. (Okay, perhaps the end scene descends into pop-culture apathy) But other than that moment it never ever dulls the senses or hides away from the abject cruelty and sadness that draws the final curtain upon this movies tragic ending and objectively it never shows neither Sid Vicious or Nancy Spungen in a positive light, nor should it on any sensible level. Alex Cox is not willing to bow to peer pressure nor glamourise the predicament of our two antiheroes. Neither is the director dictating his specific viewpoint upon the films would-be audience. What Cox does quite brilliantly is re-document events and then smashes people over the head with the truth, quickly reminding many of us who have chosen to wear rose-tinted-glasses regarding this era in pop-culture that the end of the punk revolution and most of what many took from it as a cultural event must be offered up this movie as a blatant reminder that some original fans of The Sex Pistols or Sid Vicious respectively are tarnished by a blinkered imagining of a ‘us against the world’ utopian time. Here lies the stench of hypocrisy and here instead Cox chooses to deal head-on with the bullshit that everything punk – “Rock ‘n’ Roll” in the particular case of Sidney Vicious and Nancy Spungen was a wonderful iconic dream scenario.
The fact was it was nothing other than an unmitigated disaster that led to the accidental death/murder of Nancy by her lover Sid. A scene that is graphically depicted in this film and shows the full extent and horror of what probably happened leading up to and the subsequent death of Nancy Spungen?
Alex Cox uses the end of his film imagery to shoot a surreal scene in which Sid when finally gaining release on bail sees Nancy in a dream vision. They are eventually driven away in the back of a New York yellow cab, this is the only time Cox drops his guard and offers us the ending that suggest an eternal happy afterlife together in each others company? This is in no way a criticism of Alex Cox nor Sid and Nancy as a cinematic piece or moral T-shirt iconography, it’s just an acknowledgement that in witnessing Nancy’s demise, Sid’s death was never dealt with as the movies gritty unrelenting pursuit regarding the truth behind this controversial period in punk history had done from minute one.
The real Sid and Nancy
With this petty complaint aside, this film is an almost pitch perfect retrospective delve into the punk scene and those who gave it a certain vibrancy and mythology that today has still great relevance and reverence many generations later. This Alex Cox masterpiece is simply sublime and as a biographical film experience – it is still unsurpassed.
On 2nd February, 1979, Sid Vicious died of a heroin overdose several months after the death of his beloved Nancy. What is all the more sad is the fact that the day prior to his death Sid had been released from a seven week period of incarceration in which time he had allegedly completely detoxed from his drug dependency.
Did you know that Alex Cox originally wanted to cast Courtney Love as Nancy Spungen. It was only because the films producers had already decided that the role should be played by a more established actress of the time and that is why Chloe Webb was offered the part. Courtney Love subsequently had to settle for the role of one of Sid and Nancy’s New York friends – Gretchen. It is also known that the clothing that both Gary Oldman and Chloe Webb wore throughout the films shooting schedule was never cleaned or altered. This was to enable both actors to re-enact the physical conditions that both Sid and Nancy must have continually endured in their day to day existence, which included the constant smell of stale vomit, blood, piss, shit, cigarette smoke and alcohol upon their unwashed clothing. Now that’s method acting folks! The rendition of Sid’s version of “My Way” is actually Gary Oldman’s own vocal performance being used in the retelling of this very famous scene.
For would be Punk connoisseurs we would also recommend Alex Cox’s punk orientated Sci-Fi madness, Repoman, (1984). Brian Gibson’s, ocassionally preachy but excellent, Breaking Glass, (1980). We also recommend the previous films acknowledged within this review for ‘Everything you Wanted to Know about the Sex Pistols but were afraid to ask?’ We would also like to recommend an insightful episode of the popular BBC TV arts documentary series Arena. The episode, Chelsea Hotel (1981) features an in depth and unique look into this famous building, its residents and the famous icons of movies, music and the written word that have frequented, stayed and even become resident at this New York landmark.
In 2009 Mark Sloper produced and directed an 86 minute documentary called ‘SID! By Those Who Knew Him’. This for me is a brilliant engrossing and fascinating insight into the life and times of John Simon Ritchie aka Sid Vicious and in study meticulously sums up events in his life, his spiral into drug abuse and ultimately his relationship with Nancy Spungen her influence, the flashpoint to her murder and eventually the inevitable and pointless death of punks iconic poster boy.
I seriously recommend that you look no further than this totally engrossing documentary. It’s sad and largely unflattering (as it should be). It delves into the uncompromising truth regarding all matters Sid orientated and leaves you to ponder and ask the question – why did this individual ever become the figurehead for a musical movement and generation? What is even more brutal of this expedition is how is it people still worship a guy that when examined in closer retrospective acknowledgement was merely a young man who behaved like a child and genuinely did nothing special in his time on the planet; yet when we analysis the punk rock era… there he is as its ultimate representative?
Eric D. Leach.